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History of Printed Circuit Boards: Beginning to Now


This article explores the history of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It starts with their initial development and follows their progression to a crucial role in modern electronics. The article highlights major changes, technological advancements, and historical factors. These elements have made PCBs essential in contemporary times.

The Evolution and Significance of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

Vintage electronic board showcasing early circuit designs with wire connections, resistors, and basic components mounted on a black rectangular panel.

From Humble Beginnings: Over a hundred years ago, pioneers developed the first printed circuit boards (PCBs). They sought to enhance the connection methods used in electronics. These early, basic designs on insulating boards have evolved into a key part of today’s electronics.

Albert Hanson’s Vision: In 1903, Albert Hanson from Germany made a crucial discovery. It marked the beginning of modern printed circuit boards (PCBs). His idea was to use flat foil conductors on insulating boards, simplifying the wire connections in electronics.

This innovation not only made electronics simpler but also more reliable. Hanson’s approach created a stable foundation for electronic circuits.

Edison and Refinement: Building on Hanson’s foundational work, Thomas Edison, a name synonymous with innovation, brought further sophistication to PCBs. In 1904, he improved the durability and flexibility of these boards by plating conductors onto linen paper. This shift in technique was pivotal, setting the stage for the multi-layer PCBs we recognize today.

Decades of Progress: As the years passed, figures like Arthur Berry and Charles Ducas emerged, each contributing distinct methodologies and innovations. Berry focused on distributing power evenly in PCBs. Meanwhile, Ducas worked on increasing the circuit complexity, ensuring PCBs met the needs of advancing technology.

Eisler’s Modern Touch: Then came Paul Eisler, whose designs blended art and science. Eisler’s PCB designs, addressing both present needs and future demands, played a key role during wartime. They weren’t just about efficiency; they were about reimagining what was possible.

Today’s PCB Landscape: PCBs are everywhere now, underpinning the majority of electronic devices we use daily. Various devices use these boards, ranging from smartphones to medical equipment and from cars to communication satellites. They have quietly become essential in today’s world. Their development shows a path of ongoing improvement and innovation, driven by technological needs and human creativity.

Albert Hanson’s Groundbreaking Innovation

Albert Hanson working meticulously over a detailed circuit layout, showcasing his groundbreaking innovation in electronics.

Introduction to a Revolutionary Concept: Albert Hanson stands out as a trailblazer in the realm of electronic engineering. His work in the early 20th century set in motion the developments we see in today’s advanced printed circuit boards (PCBs).

The Birth of Flat Foil Conductors: One of Hanson’s remarkable contributions was the introduction of flat foil conductors. These conductors, when laminated to insulating boards, created a structured and organized approach to electronic design. This was a significant departure from the chaotic jumble of wires that characterized earlier electronic systems.

Simplification: Hanson’s designs were instrumental in decluttering the intricate web of wire connections that were prevalent then. By establishing a flat platform for conductive pathways, he ensured a more systematic and orderly arrangement of components. This innovation not only streamlined electronic assembly but also enhanced the reliability and consistency of electronic devices.

Forward Thinking: Hanson’s designs greatly changed manufacturing methods, and his forward-thinking truly made a significant impact. He saw beyond the immediate advantages of his work. He imagined a future with smaller, more efficient, and easily expandable electronics. His vision was accurate, as modern electronics are now small but powerful, following the ideas Hanson introduced.

Legacy and Impact: Albert Hanson’s work with PCBs did more than bring in new technology. It changed how we design electronics, making them easier to use, more efficient, and ready for future improvements. His early work laid the groundwork for other inventors and engineers. Their improvements have led to the rapid technological advancements we see today.

Thomas Edison’s Pioneering Contributions

Thomas Edison, who built upon Hanson's initial concept, seated next to an early version of his plated conductors on linen paper. His pioneering approach was crucial in evolving PCB technology, making it more durable and adaptable for a myriad of applications.
  • Building on Hanson’s Vision: Thomas Edison, famous for his many inventions, recognized Hanson’s important work with printed circuit boards. Edison didn’t just use Hanson’s idea; he sought to improve and expand it. In doing so, he made his own significant contribution to the history of PCBs.
  • Plating Conductors onto Linen Paper: In 1904, Edison developed a new way to put conductors directly onto linen paper. This was a major change from the usual methods and demonstrated Edison’s skill in innovative thinking. His method created new opportunities for combining conductive paths with insulating materials.
  • The Genesis of Modern PCBs: Edison’s way of putting conductors into non-conductive materials offered an exciting preview of the future. His efforts set the basis for the multi-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs) we know today. These multi-layered boards, thanks to Edison’s early work, allow for packing more components tightly and having complicated circuits.
  • Durability and Flexibility: Edison’s innovation made PCBs much tougher by plating conductors on linen paper. The increased durability of PCBs made them suitable for various devices, including household gadgets and industrial machinery. Users no longer had to worry about rapid damage.
  • Enduring Legacy: Thomas Edison’s venture into PCBs highlighted his ongoing commitment to innovation and enhancement. While he’s famous for inventions like the light bulb, his impact on PCB technology was also significant. He broadened the possibilities, setting the stage for more advancements that have transformed the electronics industry.

Decade of Refinement: Arthur Berry and Charles Ducas

Arthur Berry: Mastering Power Distribution

  • Setting the Stage: Arthur Berry, a prominent figure in PCBs, saw the issue of uneven power distribution on circuit boards. He aimed to fix this problem, which often caused electronic devices to function poorly.
  • Transforming Power Distribution: Berry brought in new ways to distribute power, focusing on making it consistent. His methods ensured an even power distribution across the entire printed circuit board. This reduced hotspots or weak areas that could impact the device’s performance.
  • Continued Impact: Thanks to Berry’s work, the electronic industry recognized the importance of stable power distribution. His methods enhanced the performance of existing devices and established lasting standards for modern PCB designs.

Charles Ducas: Champion of Circuit Complexity

  • Taking on the Challenge: Charles Ducas, a significant figure in the PCB field, saw potential beyond the current simple circuit designs. He envisioned a future where circuitry would empower devices rather than limit them.
  • Increasing Complexity with Precision: Ducas embarked on a journey to amplify the complexity of circuits without compromising their efficiency or reliability. His hard work led to the possibility of creating multifunctional devices with many features on a single PCB.
  • Leading the Way to Modern Devices: Today, when we see the diverse gadgets in our lives, we have pioneers like Ducas to thank. His idea of combining many functions on one platform is now common in the electronics industry, allowing for versatile and compact devices.

World War Era: The Acceleration of PCB Technology in the History of Printed Circuit Boards

Paul Eisler: The Visionary Behind Modern PCB Innovations

Black and white photograph of Paul Eisler, an elderly man with glasses, deeply engrossed in studying documents on his desk, with a typewriter and other office items in the background.
  • Embracing the Future: Paul Eisler, a notable figure in printed circuit boards, had a remarkable talent for predicting future technology needs. Instead of just following current demands, he was forward-thinking, creating designs for the upcoming technological changes.
  • Wartime Ingenuity: When the world was in a global conflict, the need for reliable and advanced technology was crucial. Eisler’s complex PCB designs were key during this time, supporting the latest communication tools and advanced weaponry systems. During a time when reliable communication was vital, and weapon efficiency could decide battle results, Eisler’s innovations were important.
  • Changing Electronics: Eisler didn’t just affect wartime needs; his innovative designs transformed the entire electronics industry. He laid the foundation for more streamlined and scalable electronics by creating efficient compact layouts. This design change led to an era where devices could be small and powerful.

World War II’s Influence

An early example of a PCB from the World War era, showcasing intricate wiring and components, reflecting the technological advancements made during that pivotal time in electronics history.
  • The global conflicts during the World War era, particularly World War II, were significant catalysts for rapid technological advancements. The development of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) was no exception to this trend.
  • War Drives Innovation: During wartime, there was a growing need for better and smaller electronic components for military use. Radios, communication devices, and radar systems needed to be tougher and more portable to withstand battlefield conditions.
  • Mass Production: The war effort needed lots of electronic devices, and that meant having standardized and easily made parts. This need led to improving PCB technology, making it possible to produce electronic components in large quantities efficiently.
  • Advancements in Materials: In this period, much research focused on finding new materials for PCBs. The war effort resulted in the discovery and use of materials that made PCBs more durable, efficient, and reliable.
  • Post-war Commercialization: The progress in PCB technology during the wars didn’t disappear. Instead, it found use in commercial products, contributing to the post-war consumer electronics boom. Radios, televisions, and eventually computers benefited from the compact and reliable design of PCBs.
  • Legacy: The World War era clearly sped up the development of PCB technology. The urgent demands of the warfront pushed scientists, engineers, and manufacturers to their limits. This resulted in innovations that would shape the electronics industry for decades.

The Modern Age: The Widespread Use of PCBs

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) have improved significantly over the years to meet the needs of different times.

Close-up view of a vintage printed circuit board from the 1950s, showcasing an array of components, wire connections, and terminals, reflecting the early stages of automation in PCB production.
  • Auto-Sembly Process in the 1950s:
    • Automation:
      • The 1950s introduced automated processes to PCB production, improving efficiency and quality.
    • Mass Production:
      • Automation enabled large-scale production of PCBs, making electronic devices more accessible and affordable.
  • Changes in Assembly Techniques:
    • Surface Mount Technology:
      • In the 1980s, surface mount technology emerged and changed how boards attached components.
      • As a result, devices became smaller and more functional.
  • 21st Century Advancements:
    • Multilayer Surface Boards:
      • The 1990s saw the introduction of multilayer boards, enhancing PCB design.
      • The use of microvia technology in 1995 improved signal speed and reduced electronic interference.
    • 3D Printing:
      • 3D printing technology has impacted PCB production, allowing for quick prototyping, complex designs, and more customization options.

The Current Significance of PCBs in Modern Society

Detailed view of a contemporary printed circuit board encased within a protective shell, showcasing intricate electronic components and pathways, symbolizing the advanced nature and ubiquity of PCBs in today's technological landscape.
  • Daily Life: PCBs form the backbone of daily-use devices like smartphones, computers, and household appliances.
  • Medical Industry: Advanced PCBs facilitate critical medical equipment operations, from simple patient monitoring devices to complex MRI machines.
  • Transport: Modern vehicles, whether cars, planes, or trains, rely heavily on PCBs for navigation, control, and entertainment systems.
  • Communication: From satellites to routers, PCBs drive the world’s communication systems, keeping us connected.
  • Entertainment: Everything from gaming consoles to high-definition televisions relies on intricate PCB designs to deliver superior performance.
  • Mixed-signal technology in PCBs combines analog and digital functions, making modern devices more innovative and efficient. With IoT’s impact on PCB design, we expect even more integrated and adaptable electronic solutions in the future.


Throughout the history of printed circuit boards, they have undergone a revolutionary journey. This journey began with visionary insights from pioneers like Hanson and Edison. Today, manufacturers pervasively use these boards in almost every conceivable device. They not only have reshaped industries but also intricately woven themselves into the fabric of our daily lives.

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